PSY/103 Origins of Psychology and Research Methods Worksheet
Part I: Origins of Psychology
Within psychology, there are several perspectives used to describe, predict, and explain human behavior. The seven major perspectives in modern psychology are psychoanalytic, behaviorist, humanist, cognitive, neuroscientific/biopsychological, evolutionary, and sociocultural. Describe the perspectives, using two to three sentences each. Select one major figure associated with one of the perspectives and describe his or her work in two to three sentences. Type your response in the space below.
Psychoanalytic – Is where a person’s mind is analyzed. It was believed by Freud that abnormal behavior was caused by three parts of your mind- the id, ego, and superego.
Behavioral perspective – Being able to explain behavior by “observing” mostly non human animals
Humanistic perspective – Expressed free will and a state of self fulfillment because all people try to develop self actualization.
Cognitive perspective – Is how we gather and store information through thoughts and perceptions.
Neuroscientific/ Biopsychological perspective – Examines behavior through genetic processes of the brain and other parts of the nervous system.
Evolutionary perspective – Stresses natural selection, adaptation, and evolution of behavior and mental processes.
Sociocultural perspective – Social interactions and social determinants of behavior and mental processes.
William James broadened the perspectives of psychology by including the behaviors of animals. This included the animal’s behaviors and biological processes. His book Principles of Psychology was written in 1890 and has become a popular book among students studying psychology to this day.
Part II: Research Methods
Describe research methods used in psychology by completing the following table. Then, select two of the research methods, and compare and contrast them. Your response must be at least 75 words.
Method Purpose Strengths Weaknesses Example
Describe one ethical issue related to research. Why is informed consent necessary for ethical research?
Part III: The Brain
Studying the functions and elements of the brain is essential to understanding human behavior.
1. Why do psychologists study twins? Why do psychologists study children who have been adopted? What can be learned from these types of studies?
2. What are the functions of neurotransmitters and hormones? How do they influence the brain and behavior?