PHI 103 Week 5 Discussions Question 1 – Write two arguments in English, one in the form of modus ponens and one in the form of modus tollens

PHI 103 Week 5

Discussion Question 1

Write two arguments in English, one in the form of modus ponens and one in the form of modus tollens. Then, write the arguments in symbols using sentence letters and truth-functional connectives. (If your computer does not have all the symbols needed, use some other symbol you do have access to and explain what its meaning is.)

What advantages does being able to symbolize our arguments provide? Are there disadvantages to using this technique to make the structure of our arguments more explicit and clear?

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PHI 103 Week 5 Assignment; Legalized Abortion

PHI 103 Week 5 Assignment; Legalized Abortion

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PHI 103 Week 4 Quiz

PHI 103 Week 4 Quiz

1. Question: A good way to establish a conclusion as true, or probable, is to

2. Question: Logicians regard the following as the meaning of the word “argument.”

3. Question: A strongly supported claim in science should be regarded as

4. Question: Examining reasons and constructing arguments can help in

5. Question: If the word “should” appears in a sentence, that sentence will always involve an ethical claim.

6. Question: Descartes worried a great deal about the threat posed by which of the following?

7. Question: “If I move to Texas, I will need air conditioning. I don’t need air conditioning. So I didn’t move to Texas” is an argument form known as

8. Question: A radical skeptic might be willing to doubt which of the following?

9. Question: French philosopher René Descartes tried to show that

10. Question: To support a scientific hypothesis, one might

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PHI 103 Week 4 Discussion Question 2 – Mary is poor. She has not been able to find a job and has two children she needs to feed

PHI 103 Week 4

Discussion Question 2

Mary is poor. She has not been able to find a job and has two children she needs to feed. Assume Mary is forced to let her children go hungry or steal some food from a local grocery store. Which should she do? Construct an argument that supports Mary’s decision to steal the food or an argument that shows why Mary should not steal the food. Critique the arguments offered by your classmates.

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PHI 103 Week 4 Discussion Question 1

PHI 103 Week 4

Discussion Question 1

As stated in our text book “scientists design experiments and try to obtain results verifying or disproving a hypothesis, but philosophers are the driving force in determining what factors determine the validity of scientific results.” (Mosser, 2011). Karl Popper’s philosophy of science uses modus as the central method of disconfirming, or falsifying, scientific hypotheses.

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PHI 103 Week 4 Critical Thinking Quiz

PHI 103 Week 4 Critical Thinking Quiz

1. Question: <11{1[4(17)17]}> Mrs. Orlof teaches two history classes, one in the morning and one in the afternoon. Yesterday she gave the same test to both classes. Anyone who failed the test must take a retest. Since a greater percentage of students who took the morning test failed the test than students who took the afternoon test, more of Orlof’s morning history students than afternoon history students will have to take the retest.
The conclusion above is not necessarily valid because

2. Question: <11{1[1(19)19]}> All sages provide both wisdom and inspiration. Since Dasha’s speech contained wisdom and greatly inspired her audience, Dasha is a sage.
Which one of the following points out the flaw in the argument above?

3. Question: <21{1[1(01)01]}> Since Jessica’s participation in local politics increased significantly after she joined her school’s political science club, it is clear that her involvement in that club led her to take an interest in politics.
The argument above is flawed because

4. Question: <11{1[3(02)02]}> Catherine goes to her local movie theater only to see romantic comedies. Since Catherine did not go to the movies yesterday, there is not a romantic comedy playing at her local theater.
The reasoning above is flawed because the evidence

5. Question: <21{1[2(24)24]}> The average height of members of the high school basketball team is six feet, three inches. Jerry is on the high school basketball team, so Jerry must be taller than six feet.
The argument above is flawed because it confuses

6. Question: <11{1[4(23)23]}> People have claimed that Jamie’s paintings have given them the blues. Clearly this cannot be entirely correct, since many of Jamie’s paintings contain no blue at all.
The argument above is flawed because the author

7. Question: <21{2[2(12)36]}>Career counselor: It is best for artists to build a practical and safe career that will guarantee them a secure income, and then pursue their art in their spare time. That way, they will be motivated to work hard at their day jobs to support their art making, and both their career and their art will thrive.
Which one of the following, if true, would most weaken the argument?

8. Question: <21{2[1(01)25]}> The untimely death of Professor Hathaway halted his groundbreaking research into the uses of solar power. It therefore appears that Hathaway’s research will not result in practical applications.
Which one of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument?

9. Question: <11{2[3(02)26]}>Aron: The two double A batteries in my CD player are dead, so the CD player doesn’t work. My television remote control, which also uses two double A batteries, works fine. So if I move the two batteries from my television remote control to my CD player, the CD player will definitely work.
Aron’s argument is most strengthened if which one of the following is true?

10. Question: <11{3[1(03)39]}> Last season at City Opera House, far more people attended opera X than opera Y. However, opera Y generated far greater net profits for City Opera House than did opera X.
Each of the following could directly explain the result indicated above EXCEPT:

11. Question: <11{3[1(07)43]}> As part of its reorganization, company X created five new positions within the company. However, after the reorganization was complete, company X had fewer employees than before the reorganization.
Which one of the following, if true, would best explain the result described above?

12. Question: <11{4[2(12)56]}> Choose the pair of words/phrases among the choices that exhibits the same logical relationship as the words/phrases in the following pair.
building : blueprint

13. Question: <21{4[3(02)46]}> Choose the pair of words/phrases among the choices that exhibits the same logical relationship as the words/phrases in the following pair.
conductor : orchestra

14. Question: <21{4[1(10)54]}> Choose the pair of words/phrases among the choices that exhibits the same logical relationship as the words/phrases in the following pair.
heavy : weight

15 .Question: <11{5[1(05)61]}>Memmie: The greater the population near a restaurant, the more potential customers it has and the greater chance its popularity will spread through word-of-mouth. O’Sullivans Restaurant just opened in the very densely populated town of Redville, so its chances for success are great.
Sam: But the more people living in an area, the more restaurants there are in that area, so the more competition each one faces. There are twelve other restaurants serving the people of Redville.
Memmie and Sam seem to disagree about whether

16. Question: <21{5[1(03)59]}>Barney: Last winter, I slipped on the outside stairs of PineTree Café and broke my leg. My fall was caused by ice on the stairs that the restaurant failed to remove. Since the restaurant clearly did not provide a safe atmosphere for its customers, I am justified in taking it to court.
Lydia: Unwarranted lawsuits are sweeping the country—lawsuits that have no legal merit and are brought simply to make lawyers and their clients rich. If this trend continues, soon our legal system will be swamped to the point where it won’t be able to administer justice to people who truly deserve it. You therefore should drop your case against PineTree Café.
The speakers above appear to disagree on which one of the following points?

17. Question: <7{6[3(02)66]}> In a survey of 10 film historians, half voted for Nosferatu as the greatest vampire film ever made, and the other half voted for Dracula. However, when asked which lead vampire character they considered more charismatic, all of the film critics chose Dracula over Nosferatu. Based on the information above, it must be true that for some film critics, their feelings about the charisma of the lead character

18. Question: <21{6[3(08)72]}> Some drugs combat obesity or alcohol addiction by turning off pleasure centers in the brain. However, if the dosage is too high, there’s a risk that people taking them will be plunged into depression.
The statements above, if true, support which one of the following assertions?

19. Question: <11{6[1(07)71]}> The higher the price of an antique, the greater people’s expectation that the object is rare. That, in turn, makes the antique appear more valuable.
If the statements above are correct, then offering an antique for sale at a bargain price

20. Question: <11{7[2(03)79]}> Looking to increase the profits of his lemonade stand, Johann doubled the price of a cup of lemonade from 25 cents to 50 cents. This clearly shows Johann’s lack of business sense, for now he’ll almost certainly sell fewer cups at the new price and therefore make less money than before.
The argument above assumes that

21. Question: <11{7[3(08)84]}> The president spoke to 19 congressmen from Texas to encourage them to vote for a bill. Since four of the 19 congressmen went on to vote for the bill, it is clear that the president persuaded those four to vote the way they did.
The argument above assumes that

22. Question: <11{7[1(01)77]}>Detective: The robbery at the mall was carried out by a mall employee acting alone roughly one hour after the mall closed last Saturday night. The only employees present at the mall at the time of the robbery were security guards Evans and Clark. Since the mall’s surveillance system was disabled by the thief just before the robbery, the thief must be Evans.
The argument above would be valid if

23. Question: <11{8[1(10)98]}> Sometimes people get caught in a “downward spiral,” a case in which something leads to a result which in turn leads to more of the original thing, bringing on more of the result. As the process continues, the result continually gets worse and worse. An example is when people turn to binge eating when depressed, which causes them to put on weight and feel unhealthy, which then makes them more depressed, leading to more overeating, and so on.
The author is mainly concerned with

24. Question: <21{8[1(07)95]}>Political science professor: Many people insist that the Internet is revolutionizing the political process. They argue that Internet debates and online political polls and chat rooms give people greater access to political information. And they’re right that online political chatter increases daily. But offering or reading anonymous online opinions does not by itself make for active political participation. In the past one would attend a rally, protest, or town meeting to engage in real politics. Today, people sit passively in front of computer screens under the illusion that they are connecting with their fellow citizens. Which one of the following best expresses the main idea of the professor’s argument?

25. Question: <11{8[3(02)90]}> Whereas many industries suffer during economic recessions, the art industry does well. Some think the reason is that artists feed off the anxiety and uncertainty during recessions to produce inspired works. Others think that recessions, while harmful to most people, produce a handful of very rich people willing to pay very high prices for artworks, driving up the value of the art market as a whole.
The author of the passage above is primarily interested in

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PHI 103 Week 3 Quiz

PHI 103 Week 3 Quiz

1. Question: “China uses too much oil. So they shouldn’t develop their industry” may commit which fallacy?

2. Question: “Julie started carrying a rabbit’s foot, then she won the lottery. The rabbit’s foot must have caused her to win the lottery” commits a(n)

3. Question: A person who is shown his or her argument commits a fallacy should

4. Question: A fallacy is an argument that

5. Question: “If that wasn’t illegal, then it wouldn’t be against the law” may commit which fallacy?

6. Question:” My husband snores. All men must snore” commits which of these fallacies.

7. Question: After being told that she is being punished for lying, a child responds by telling her mother that she also lied. This response may involve which fallacy?

8. Question: “You should read this book. Everybody likes it so it must be good” may commit which fallacy?

9. Question: “I bought a pair of shoes from that store that immediately fell apart. Their shoes are no good” may commit which fallacy?

10. Question: “The Senator wants to cut spending on police. I guess she doesn’t care if we all get murdered” may commit which fallacy?

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PHI 103 Week 3 Discussion Question 2 – One rich source of fallacies is the media: television, radio, magazines, and the Internet (including, of course, commercials.)

PHI 103 Week 3

Discussion Question 2

One rich source of fallacies is the media: television, radio, magazines, and the Internet (including, of course, commercials.) Identify two distinct fallacies you see committed in the media. Do you think it is more likely that you will not be fooled by these fallacies having studied logic? What do you think those presenting these arguments assume about the logical skills of their viewers? Is this a good or bad assumption for them to make?

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PHI 103 Week 3 Discussion Question 1

PHI 103 Week 3

Discussion Question 1

Considering the fallacies discussed in Chapter Four of An Introduction to Logic, construct three different arguments that display distinct fallacies. Give an explanation of why each makes a mistake in drawing the conclusion it does. Review your classmates’ examples and see if they, in fact, commit the fallacy identified.

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PHI 103 Week 3 Assignment; The Impact of Stereotyping Groups

PHI 103 Week 3 Assignment; The Impact of Stereotyping Groups

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